Before the discovery of Hispaniola the island that is now Haiti and the Dominican Republic by Christopher Columbus, there was a thriving civilization of native Americans, known as the Arawak-speaking Taino Indians. The arrival of Columbus and European colonialism brought disease, slavery, misery and death.
In the years leading up to the break with the mother country especially after the Stamp Act ofAmericans wrote tracts and adopted resolutions resting their claim of rights on Magna Carta, on the colonial charters, and on the teachings of natural law. Constitutional Convention Once independence had been declared, inthe American states turned immediately to the writing of state constitutions and state bills of rights.
That document, which wove Lockean notions of natural rights with concrete protections against specific abuses, was the model for bills of rights in other states and, ultimately, for the federal Bill of Rights. They did not oppose the principle of a bill of rights; they simply thought it unnecessary, in light of the theory that the new federal government would be one of enumerated powers only.
Opponents of ratification quickly seized upon the absence of a bill of rights, and Federalists, especially Madison, soon realized that they must offer to add amendments to the Constitution after its ratification. Carefully sifting amendments from proposals made in the state ratifying conventions, Madison steered his project through the shoals of indifference on the part of some members who thought the House had more important work to do and outright hostility on the part of others Antifederalists who hoped for a second convention to hobble the powers of the federal government.
In September the House and Senate accepted a conference report laying out the language of proposed amendments to the Constitution. Within six months of the time the amendments—the Bill of Rights—had been submitted to the states, nine had ratified them.
Ten amendments were ratified; two others, dealing with the number of representatives and with the compensation of senators and representatives, were not. On their face, it is obvious that the amendments apply to actions by the federal government, not to actions by the states.
Inin Barron v. Baltimore, Chief Justice John Marshall confirmed that understanding. Through this process, nearly all the important provisions of the Bill of Rights now apply to the states. The original Constitution has been amended a number of times—for example, to provide for direct election of senators and to give the vote to eighteen-year-olds.
The Bill of Rights, however, has never been amended. There is, of course, sharp debate over Supreme Court interpretation of specific provisions, especially where social interests such as the control of traffic in drugs seem to come into tension with provisions of the Bill of Rights such as the Fourth Amendment.
Such debate notwithstanding, there is no doubt that the Bill of Rights, as symbol and substance, lies at the heart of American conceptions of individual liberty, limited government, and the rule of law. Irving Brant, The Bill of Rights: Its Origin and Meaning ; Robert A.
Rutland, The Birth of the Bill of Rights, DICK HOWARD The Bill of Rights Amendment I Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
Amendment II A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.
Amendment III No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. Amendment IV The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Amendment V No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.
Amendment VI In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.
Amendment VII In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Amendment VIII Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. Amendment IX The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. Amendment X The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.The Right of the People to Keep and Bear Arms.
The Second Amendment to the Constitution protects the right of the people to keep and bear arms. The Supreme Court has applied this protection to state governments through the Fourteenth Amendment..
Top Story: Poll: Majority backs stricter gun control laws after Vegas shooting. Proposals for a British Bill of Rights have come from across the political spectrum. The various plans would have very different consequences Full print version, including charts and tables (PDF 92 KB) The Human Rights Act (HRA) was introduced in to “bring rights home”.
Essentially, it. The addition of the Bill of Rights was the compromise made with those who feared the future abuses by a strong central government. Here are current ex Bill of Rights Issues and News - Freedoms Phoenix. vetconnexx.com is the premiere United States Political Forum with many areas of discussions including Current Events, Politics, US Affairs, Congress, Stock Market.
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