Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.
Etymology[ edit ] Though several earlier usages are known, dystopia was deployed as an antonym for Utopia by J. It was used to denounce the government's Irish land policy: What is commonly called Utopian is something too good to be practicable; but what they appear to favour is too bad to be practicable.
Wells depicted the governing class as hedonistic and shallow. These dystopian government establishments often have protagonists or groups that lead a " resistance " to enact change within their society, as is seen in Alan Moore 's V for Vendetta.
However, there are several archetypes that such societies tend to follow. A commonly occurring theme is the dichotomy of planned economies versus free market economies, a conflict which is found in such works as Ayn Rand 's Anthem and Henry Kuttner 's short story "The Iron Standard".
Another example of this is reflected in Norman Jewison 's film Rollerball. Some dystopias, such as that of Nineteen Eighty-Four, feature black markets with goods that are dangerous and difficult to obtain, or the characters may be totally at the mercy of the state-controlled economy. Kurt Vonnegut 's Player Piano depicts a dystopia in which the centrally controlled economic system has indeed made material abundance plentiful, but deprived the mass of humanity of meaningful labor; virtually all work is menial and unsatisfying, and only a small number of the small group that achieves education is admitted to the elite and its work.
In Brave New World, a character, reacting with horror to the suggestion of not being part of the social body, cites as a reason that everyone works for everyone else.
In Ypsilon Minus by Herbert W.
Frankepeople are divided into numerous alphabetically ranked groups. Family[ edit ] Some fictional dystopias, such as Brave New World and Fahrenheithave eradicated the family and deploy continuing efforts to keep it from re-establishing itself as a social institution.
In Brave New World, where children are reproduced artificially, the concepts "mother" and "father" are considered obscene. In some novels, the State is hostile to motherhood: In Brave New World, for example, the establishment of the state included lopping off the tops of all crosses as symbols of Christianity to make them "T"s, as symbols of Henry Ford's Model T.
In some dystopian works, such as Kurt Vonnegut 's Harrison Bergeronsociety forces individuals to conform to radical egalitarian social norms that discourage or suppress accomplishment or even competence as forms of inequality.
Violence[ edit ] Violence is prevalent in many dystopias, often in the form of war e. Nineteen Eighty-Four ; urban crimes led by gangs often of teenagers e. A Clockwork Orange ; rampant crime met by blood sports e. Also explained in Suzanne Berne's essay "Ground Zero", where she explains her experience with the aftermath of 11 September Lewis 's That Hideous Strengthscience coordinated by government is directed toward the control of nature and the elimination of natural human instincts.
In Brave New World, the lower classes of society are conditioned to be afraid of nature, but also to visit the countryside and consume transportation and games to promote economic activity. Forster 's " The Machine Stops " depicts a highly changed global environment which forces people to live underground due to an atmospheric contamination.
The latter is set in the aftermath of nuclear war, "a post-nuclear holocaust Kent, where technology has reduced to the level of the Iron Age ".
Technologies reflect and encourage the worst aspects of human nature. This quote explains that people begin to not only blame the technology for the changes in lifestyle but also believe that technology is an omnipotence.
It also points to a technological determinist perspective in terms of reification. Technologies harm our interpersonal communication, relationships, and communities.Fahrenheit was a dystopian science fiction movie directed by François Truffaut, filmed and produced in England in , which starred an international cast of actors and actresses like Oskar Werner, the very popular by that time Julie Christie, Anton Diffring and Cyril Cusack among others.
The film was based on the novel of the same title by American sci-fi writer Ray Bradbury of. Aug 07, · Best Young Adult Novels, Best Teen Fiction, Top Teen Novels More than 75, of you voted for your favorite young-adult fiction.
Now, after all . A summary of Themes in Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Fahrenheit and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. More information than you require.
Jordan and Michael Shannon co-star. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard.