The applicant contended that the decisions were invalid and consequently, that he was not liable to pay the relevant rates.
According to this theory, men who abused their wives were mentally ill and could be cured through medication or psychiatric treatment. Researchers found, however, that the behavior of perpetrators of domestic violence did not correspond to profiles of individuals who were mentally ill.
Batterers attack only their intimate partners. People who suffer from mental illnesses such as schizophrenia do not limit their violence to their intimate partners. Initial studies also characterized battered women as mentally ill. In reality, however, battered women are not mentally ill, and many of those who were institutionalized were misdiagnosed because of a failure to recognize or understand the physical and psychological effects of domestic violence.
Researchers next theorized that violence was learned. They argued that men battered because they had learned violence in their families as children, and women sought out abusive men because they saw their mothers being abused. Yet women who witness domestic violence are not any more likely to be battered as adults.
A recent study reported by the Family Violence Prevention Fund does indicate, however, that women who were physically or sexually abused as children may be more likely to be abused as adults. Although research does show that boys who witness abuse in the home are seven times more likely to batter, many men who witnessed violence as children vow not to use violence and do not grow up to be batterers.
A more consistent explanation for the relationship between witnessing and battering is that witnessing is one of many sources of information; men also receive information from the larger society that it is appropriate to control your wife and to enforce this control through violence.
Further, as emphasized in batterers treatment programsboys who witnessed domestic violence and grew up to be batterers learned more than just violence; rather, they learned—and thus can unlearn—lessons about the respective roles of men and women that contribute to their abusive behavior as adults.
For example, many believed that men are abusive when they drink because the alcohol causes them to lose control. These theorists argued that gendered societal expectations prevented men from expressing anger and frustration; these feelings would build up until the man lost control and released his feelings through the use of violence.
Batterers also chose their tactics carefully—some destroy property, some rely on threats of abuse, and some threaten children. In fact, a recent study reported by the Family Violence Prevention Fund indicates that many batterers become more controlled and calm as their aggressiveness increases.
Lenore Walker, a psychologist in the United States, studied the behavior of women who stay in violent relationships.
Walker hypothesized that women stay in abusive relationships because constant abuse strips them of the will to leave. The learned helplessness theory, however, did not account for the fact that there are many social, economic and cultural reasons a woman might chose to stay in an abusive relationship.
Women often have very rational reasons for staying—they may fear retaliation against themselves or their children, or they may not be able to financially support themselves or their children.
They may be ostracized by their family and community if they leave. Further, the learned helplessness theory is inconsistent with the fact that women surviving in abusive relationships attempt to leave many times and routinely act in very conscious ways to try to minimize the abuse directed at them and to protect their children.
In the beginning, they are generally not attempting to end the relationship, but are negotiating to reestablish the relationship on a non-violent basis. In addition, the learned helplessness theory was based on perceived characteristics ostensibly shared by battered women, such as low self esteem, a tendency to withdraw, or perceptions of loss of control.Parents or older family members who use drugs or misuse alcohol, or who break the law, can increase children's risk of future drug problems.
29; exposure to physical or sexual abuse, genes, or mental illness. Still, the fact remains that early use is a strong indicator of problems ahead, including addiction. Elder Abuse and Neglect but there are plenty of things you can do to address drug or alcohol abuse.
Get professional help. Preventing & Reporting Elder Abuse – page PDF booklet covering many aspects of elder abuse. (California Department of Justice) Authors: Lawrence Robinson, Joanna Saisan, MSW, and Jeanne Segal, Ph.D. Alcohol consumption trends and patterns vary markedly across various groups within the U.S.
Recognition of diversity in alcohol-related problems is an important aspect of developing tailored and targeted intervention and prevention responses. This is a discussion of the various abuses of power which have been exhibited by the US government, often under the guise of 'fighting terrorism' or some other popular goal.
Includes news articles about the abuse of power and the perpetuation of government agencies which have too much power, too little restraint, and too many bad ideas.
Training should also explore key issues influencing women's substance abuse—family, parenting, relationships, self-sufficiency and life skills, anxiety and depression, grief and loss, abuse and trauma, educational and vocational issues, and societal gender roles.
This course covers substance abuse, symptoms, withdrawals, intervention and information concerning which substances have the potential for abuse.