Geographical extent[ edit ] British India in The British Raj extended over almost all present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from until its independence in The Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as Presidencies and provinces of British India until and used the rupee as their unit of currency. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between and
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. At each stage of reform, as the prospects of real devolution of political power by the British seemed more imminentseparate-electorate formulas and leaders of various parties stirred hopes, which proved almost as dangerous in triggering violence as did fears.
The older, more conservative leadership of the pre-World War I Congress Party found Gandhian satyagraha too radical—moreover, far too revolutionary—to support, and liberals like Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru — organized their own party eventually to become the National Liberal Federationwhile others, like Jinnahdropped out of political life entirely.
Jinnah, alienated by Gandhi and his illiterate mass of devoutly Hindu disciplesinstead devoted himself to his lucrative Bombay law practice, but his energy and ambition lured him back to the leadership of the Muslim Leaguewhich he revitalized in the s. By a number of Indian Muslims had begun to think in terms of separate statehood for their minority communitywhose population dominated the northwestern provinces of British India and the eastern half of Bengal, as well as important pockets of the United Provinces and the great princely state of Kashmir.
The princely state of Hyderabad in British withdrawal from india south was ruled by a Muslim dynasty but was mostly Hindu. Jinnah, the Aga Khanand other important Muslim leaders were at the time in London attending the Round Table Conference, which still envisaged a single federation of all Indian provinces and princely states as the best possible constitutional solution for India in the aftermath of a future British withdrawal.
As long as the British raj remained in control, such formulas and schemes appeared to sufficefor the British army could always be hurled into the communal fray at the brink of extreme danger, and the army had as yet remained apolitical and—since its post-mutiny reorganization—untainted by communal religious passions.
Such hopes virtually disappeared, however, when Nehru refused to permit the league to form coalition ministries with the Congress majority in the United Provinces and elsewhere after the elections.
Thus, the lines of battle were drawn by the eve of World War II, which served only to intensify and accelerate the process of communal conflict and irreversible political division that would split British India. Throughout World War IIas the Congress Party moved farther from the British, first with passive and later with active noncooperation, the Muslim League in every possible way quietly supported the war effort.
Jawaharlal Nehruwho was the next to openly disobey British law, was sentenced to four years behind bars. By June more than 20, Congress satyagrahis were in prisons.
However, after Japan joined the Axis powers in late and moved with such rapidity into most of Southeast AsiaBritain feared that the Japanese would soon invade India. He flew home empty-handed in less than a month, and soon afterward Gandhi planned his last satyagraha campaign, the Quit India movement.
In a few months at least 60, Indians filled British prison cells, and the raj unleashed massive force against Indian underground efforts to disrupt rail transport and to generally subvert the war effort that followed the crackdown on the Quit India campaign. Parts of the United Provinces, Biharthe North-West Frontier, and Bengal were bombed and strafed by British pilots as the raj resolved to crush all Indian resistance and violent opposition as swiftly as possible.
By late and throughout the rest of the war, U. The British raj thus remained firm despite growing Indian opposition, both violent and nonviolent. Indian industry grew rapidly, moreover, during World War II. Indian shipyards and light-manufacturing plants flourished in Bombay, as well as in Bengal and Orissaand, despite many warnings, the Japanese never launched major air attacks against Calcutta or Madras Chennai.India - Muslim separatism: The Muslim quarter of India’s population became increasingly wary of the Congress Party’s promises and restive in the wake of the collapse of the Khilāfat movement, which occurred after Kemal Atatürk announced his modernist Turkish reforms in and disavowed the very title of caliph the following year.
Hindu-Muslim riots along the southwestern Malabar Coast.
The British Raj (/ r ɑː dʒ /; from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between and The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India.
The region under British control was commonly called British India or simply India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United.
British Coins before the Florin, Compared to French Coins of the Ancien Régime. The table at right shows the British coins in common use until the introduction of the two shilling Florin in Copper coins are shown in red, silver in blue, and gold in brown.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the. Mar 03, · In , British Crown rule was established in India, ending a century of control by the East India Company.
The life and death struggle that preceded this formalisation of British . Mar 03, · In , British Crown rule was established in India, ending a century of control by the East India Company.
The life and death struggle that preceded this formalisation of British .