The other half consists of paper formatting. Students have to follow all academic requirements to get the highest grades.
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Welcome again, and see you on the other side! The issue comes up frequently for theses and dissertations because students are required to really expand on the literature. The issue can also come up in books because entire paragraphs are often dedicated to ideas or data from one source.
APA citations can become quite tricky in these situations. The Old Way At some point a paragraph could be cited by placing the parenthetical citation outside of the final period of the final sentence of the paragraph. This is an example sentence that cites one source. I decided to talk more about that source.
Here is another sentence on that source. And finally I talk about the source more.
At least, the method is not described, so we can infer that it is not allowed. It is also poor practice to put a single citation at the end of a paragraph.
Below are various ways to update your paragraph with specific language and avoid having to use several successive citations. Another Incorrect Way Another way that writers frequently approach this issue is that they put a parenthetical citation inside the final period of the paragraph.
This is Sentence 1. This is Sentence 2. This is Sentence 3. And this is Sentence 4 Author, Year. This approach should not be used in APA as a side note, MLA accepts this practice if no confusion results, and of course the citation would have no comma or year but would have a page number in MLA style.
Even if you are using a citation to refer to two sentences, the citation should go in the first sentence, not in the second sentence. And in that case, the second sentence should either repeat the citation or the wording should make it clear that the second sentence is still referring to the previous citation more on this below.
One way to do this is to use your language effectively. Look at these two options simplified for the sake of example: Cars are interesting Johnson, Consumers find cars interesting for different reasons.
In a nationally representative study of the opinions of 10, new-car buyers inbuyers were asked to rank cars on speed, aesthetic appeal, and safety Johnson, Consumers were also asked to explain how those factors affected their purchasing decisions.
The first sentence states an opinion but the citation could make it look like you are trying to turn it into a fact. The sentence also does not clearly identify whether this is theory, and empirical finding, or an opinion. The first sentence in Option 2 is a general statement, so it does not require a citation there are certainly better ways to start a paragraph, but I want to keep the focus on citing a paragraph here.
At least, however, the sentence is more informative than the opening sentence in Option 1. The second and third sentences are key because they explain what kind of evidence is cited. If we are creative and specific with the language, we can get rid of the second two citations.
We have already been careful with our wording to avoid potential ambiguity. Use Words Strategically Using words such as respondents is a great way to refer back to the study mentioned in a previous sentence.APA's Publication Manual, 6th Edition, provides complete style guidelines and should be consulted first in all matters concerning APA Style ®, but these FAQs will help clarify frequent areas of confusion.
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.
GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT See Citing Government Documents: American Psychological Association. LEGAL MATERIALS See Citing Legal Materials in APA Style (Remember that, in a real paper, the above citations would all be in hanging indent format.). NOTES-to clarify some of the trickier points!.
Using italics, as in the examples above, is preferred, but underlining is still acceptable. Citing Online/eBooks in APA Style When citing online books and eBooks, the publisher location and name are replaced with a web site address.
The web site address should be the home page URL of the digital library or publisher. APA 6th Ed. Summary—Writing Updated 6/ – Rich Lewis *Examples are from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Ed. () Library call # AC1.P83 The goal of scholarly writing in the APA format is to clearly and concisely communicate to the reader.
When citing the same author multiple times in a paragraph, see Citing Paraphrased Work in APA Style from the APA Style Blog. Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers.
In this case, use paragraph numbers preceded by the abbreviation 'para.' (Rule pp. ).