The study of these genetic syndromes has helped researchers understand obesity. People with this condition have low levels of thyroid hormones. People with hypothyroidism also produce less body heat, have a lower body temperature, and do not efficiently use stored fat for energy. People with this condition have high levels of glucocorticoidssuch as cortisolin the blood.
Rafa Alvarez Advertisement For the 35 percent of American adults who do daily battle with obesity, the main causes of their condition are all too familiar: In recent years, however, researchers have become increasingly convinced that important hidden players literally lurk in human bowels: Throughout our evolutionary history, the microscopic denizens of our intestines have helped us break down tough plant fibers in exchange for the privilege of living in such a nutritious broth.
Yet their roles appear to extend beyond digestion. New evidence indicates that gut bacteria alter the way we store fat, how we balance levels of glucose in the blood, and how we respond to hormones that make us feel hungry or full. The wrong mix of microbes, it seems, can help set the stage for obesity and diabetes from the moment of birth.
Fortunately, researchers are beginning to understand the differences between the wrong mix and a healthy one, as well as the specific factors that shape those differences. They hope to learn how to cultivate this inner ecosystem in ways that could prevent—and possibly treat—obesity, which doctors define as having a particular ratio of height and weight, known as the body mass index, that is greater than Imagine, for example, foods, baby formulas or supplements devised to promote virtuous microbes while suppressing the harmful types.
Keeping our gut microbes happy could be the elusive secret to weight control. An Inner Rain Forest Researchers have long known that the human body is home to all manner of microorganisms, but only in the past decade or so have they come to realize that these microbes outnumber our own cells 10 to one.
By studying the genes of these various microbes—collectively referred to as the microbiome—investigators have identified many of the most common residents, although these can vary greatly from person to person and among different human populations.
In recent years researchers have begun the transition from mere census taking to determining the kind of jobs these minute inhabitants fill in the human body and the effect they have on our overall health.
An early hint that gut microbes might play a role in obesity came from studies comparing intestinal bacteria in obese and lean individuals.
In studies of twins who were both lean or both obese, researchers found that the gut community in lean people was like a rain forest brimming with many species but that the community in obese people was less diverse—more like a nutrient-overloaded pond where relatively few species dominate.
Lean individuals, for example, tended to have a wider variety of Bacteroidetes, a large tribe of microbes that specialize in breaking down bulky plant starches and fibers into shorter molecules that the body can use as a source of energy.
Documenting such differences does not mean the discrepancies are responsible for obesity, however. To demonstrate cause and effect, Gordon and his colleagues conducted an elegant series of experiments with so-called humanized mice, published last September in Science.
First, they raised genetically identical baby rodents in a germ-free environment so that their bodies would be free of any bacteria. Then they populated their guts with intestinal microbes collected from obese women and their lean twin sisters three pairs of fraternal female twins and one set of identical twins were used in the studies.
The mice ate the same diet in equal amounts, yet the animals that received bacteria from an obese twin grew heavier and had more body fat than mice with microbes from a thin twin.
As expected, the fat mice also had a less diverse community of microbes in the gut. This time both groups remained lean. To further prove the point, the researchers transferred 54 varieties of bacteria from some lean mice to those with the obese-type community of germs and found that the animals that had been destined to become obese developed a healthy weight instead.
Transferring just 39 strains did not do the trick.
His studies, as well as those by other researchers, offer enticing clues about what those roles might be. Both these chemicals are typically elevated in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Another job vacancy associated with obesity might be one normally filled by a stomach bacterium called Helicobacter pylori.
Research by Martin Blaser of New York University suggests that it helps to regulate appetite by modulating levels of ghrelin—a hunger-stimulating hormone. Diet is an important factor in shaping the gut ecosystem. A diet of highly processed foods, for example, has been linked to a less diverse gut community in people.
The unhealthy diet somehow prevented the virtuous bacteria from moving in and flourishing. The interaction between diet and gut bacteria can predispose us to obesity from the day we are born, as can the mode by which we enter the world.
Studies have shown that both formula-fed babies and infants delivered by cesarean section have a higher risk for obesity and diabetes than those who are breast-fed or delivered vaginally.
C-section babies skip this bacterial baptism. Babies raised on formula face a different disadvantage: According to a recent Canadian study, babies drinking formula have bacteria in their gut that are not seen in breast-fed babies until solid foods are introduced.
Their presence before the gut and immune system are mature, says Dominguez-Bello, may be one reason these babies are more susceptible to allergies, asthma, eczema and celiac disease, as well as obesity.
A new appreciation for the impact of gut microbes on body weight has intensified concerns about the profligate use of antibiotics in children.
Blaser has shown that when young mice are given low doses of antibiotics, similar to what farmers give livestock, they develop about 15 percent more body fat than mice that are not given such drugs.
Antibiotics may annihilate some of the bacteria that help us maintain a healthy body weight. If you have a fire in a forest that is new, you get extinction.Infertility in men can be caused by different factors and is typically evaluated by a semen analysis.
When a semen analysis is performed, the number of sperm (concentration), motility (movement), and morphology (shape) are assessed by a specialist. Figure 3–1.
Sample correspondence for weight control program.
Figure 3–1. Sample correspondence for weight control program—Continued.
d. Health care personnel will perform a medical evaluation when a Soldier has a medical limitation, is pregnant, or when requested by the unit commander.
RT @HarvardChanSPH: There is no evidence that bananas contribute to weight gain, despite popular vetconnexx.com more about the research on b. Unhealthy Ingredient: Bleaching chemicals such as azodicarbonamide Even if your bread’s first ingredient is “wheat flour”—keep reading.
If it doesn’t mention that it’s unbleached, you’re likely noshing on a sandwich laced with creepy chemicals. What causes chronic diseases? The causes (risk factors) of chronic diseases are well estab-lished and well known; a small set of common risk factors are. Toxic and Unhealthy substances such as mercury amalgam fillings, pesticides, aspartame, artificial sweeteners, fluoride, and other poisons can have an emormous influence on the outcome of any holistic healing program and on one's health.