Theories of Interpersonal Relationship Theories of Interpersonal Relationship Interpersonal relationship refers to a strong association amongst individuals with similar tastes, aspirations and interests in life. It is essential for individuals to share a healthy relationship with each other not only for quicker delivery of results but also for a positive ambience at the workplace. Let us go through the theories of interpersonal relationship development in detail: A relationship without expectations is meaningless.
Early life[ edit ] Sullivan was a child of Irish immigrants and grew up in the then anti-Roman Catholic town of Norwich, New Yorkresulting in a social isolation which may have inspired his later interest in psychiatry.
He attended the Smyrna Union School, then spent two years at Cornell University from receiving his medical degree in Chicago College of Medicine and Surgery in Eriksonand Frieda Fromm-ReichmannSullivan laid the groundwork for understanding the individual based on the network of relationships in which he or she is enmeshed.
He developed a theory of psychiatry based on interpersonal relationships  where cultural forces are largely responsible for mental illnesses see also social psychiatry. In his words, one must pay attention to the "interactional", not the "intrapsychic".
This search for satisfaction via personal involvement with others led Sullivan to characterize loneliness as the most painful of human experiences. He also extended the Freudian psychoanalysis to the treatment of patients with severe mental disorders, particularly schizophrenia.
Besides making the first mention of the significant other in psychological literature, Sullivan developed the Self System, a configuration of the personality traits developed in childhood and reinforced by positive affirmation and the security operations developed in childhood to avoid anxiety and threats to self-esteem.
Sullivan further defined the Self System as a steering mechanism toward a series of I-You interlocking behaviors; that is, what an individual does is meant to elicit a particular reaction. Sullivan called these behaviors Parataxical Integrationsand he noted that such action-reaction combinations can become rigid and dominate an adult's thinking pattern, limiting its actions and reactions toward the world as the adult sees it and not as it really is.
The resulting inaccuracies in judgment Sullivan termed parataxic distortionwhen other persons are perceived or evaluated based on the patterns of previous experience, similar to Freud's notion of transference.
Sullivan also introduced the concept of "prototaxic communication" as a more primitive, needy, infantile form of psychic interchange and of "syntactic communication" as a mature style of emotional interaction.
Sullivan's work on interpersonal relationships became the foundation of interpersonal psychoanalysisa school of psychoanalytic theory and treatment that stresses the detailed exploration of the nuances of patients' patterns of interacting with others.
Sullivan was the first to coin the term "problems in living" to describe the difficulties with self and others experienced by those with so-called mental illnesses. This phrase was later picked up and popularized by Thomas Szaszwhose work was a foundational resource for the antipsychiatry movement.
Inhe reviewed the controversial anonymously published The Invert and his Social Adjustment and in called it "a remarkable document by a homosexual man of refinement; intended primarily as a guide to the unfortunate sufferers of sexual inversion, and much less open to criticism than anything else of the kind so far published.
Inhe and colleague Winfred Overholserserving on the American Psychiatric Society 's committee on Military Mobilization, formulated guidelines for the psychological screening of inductees to the United States military. He believed, writes one historian, "that sexuality played a minimal role in causing mental disorders and that adult homosexuals should be accepted and left alone.
Hersey, who was hostile to psychiatry, became Director.
His colleague Helen Swick Perry's biography of Sullivan mentions the relationship and it is clear his close friends were well aware they were partners. Writings[ edit ] Although Sullivan published little in his lifetime, he influenced generations of mental health professionals, especially through his lectures at Chestnut Lodge in Washington, DC.
Leston Havens called him the most important underground influence in American psychoanalysis. His ideas were collected and published posthumously, edited by Helen Swick Perry, who also published a detailed biography in Perry,Psychiatrist of America.When one considers a holistic and integrative approach to psychotherapy, it is worth evaluating and reviewing four approaches: One humanistic, one transpersonal, one existential and one psychodynamic approach..
Trainee psychotherapists invariably bring tremendous personal material to the table.
Students on an integrative pathway are often asked at some point in their training to critically. Originally published in by a towering figure in nursing history, this book stresses the then novel theory of interpersonal relations as it was relevant to the work of nurses.
Her framework suggested that interaction phenomena that occur during patient-nurse relationships have qualitative impact on 2/5(1). Freud and Psychodynamic Theory - Freud and Psychodynamic Theory Freud was born on May 6, , in the Moravian town of Freiberg, then a part of the .
Social psychology traditionally has been defined as the study of the philosophy, semiotics, and literary theory. And although there is a core of This chapter will review four models of interpersonal communication and some of the research that they have motivated. As was noted above.
Social psychology essay interpersonal attraction. Social Psychology Essay. Q) Describe and evaluate one or more explanations of interpersonal attraction (24 marks) A) Interpersonal attraction is based on the basic human need to be with others, also known as affiliation.
This attraction ranges from romantic to casual relationships. The psychodynamic theories of personality are mainly composed of famous theorists such as Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson and Alfred Adler. The Object Relations Theory also belongs to this group of personality theories.
Let's see how each theory explains the nature and process of personality.